[1] The material here is derived from my forthcoming book, The Banality of Good and Evil: Moral Lessons from the Shoah and Jewish Tradition (Georgetown University Press; 1999). The paper was delivered at a conference at Notre Dame entitled, "Humanity at the Limit: The Impact of the Holocaust on Jews and Christians." It was published as: "What to Do: Approaches to Post-Holocaust Education," Humanity at the Limit, ed. M. A. Signer (Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press: 2000) 355-69.

[2] On the "use" of the shoah, see D. Blumenthal, "The Holocaust and Hiroshima: Icons of Our Century," available on my website <http://www.emory.edu/UDR/BLUMENTHAL>, and "From Anger to Inquiry," From the Unthinkable to the Unavoidable, ed. C. Rittner and J. Roth (Westport, CT, Prager: 1997) 149-55, also available on my website.

[3] Westminster / John Knox: 1993. See also my "Theodicy: Dissonance in Theory and Praxis," Concilium, 1 (1998) 138-54, also available on my website.

[4] On both these issues, see S. Katz, "The `Unique' Intentionality of the Holocaust," in Post-Holocaust Dialogues ed. S. Katz, (New York, New York University Press: 1985) 287-317 and idem., The Holocaust in Historical Context (New York, Oxford University Press: 1994-).

[5] For a preliminary attempt, see E. Staub, The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence (Cambridge, Cambrdige University Press: 1989) and idem., "Psychological and Cultural Origins of Exteme Destructiveness and Extreme Altruism," Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development, ed. W. Kurtines and J. Gewirtz (Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum: 1991) 425-46.

[6] As Elie Wiesel has noted, while not all the victims were Jewish, all the perpetrators and bystanders were Christian.

[7] See Part One of The Banality of Evil.

[8] See Part Two of The Banality of Evil.

[9] J. M. Darley and C. D. Batson, "From Jerusalem to Jericho: A Study of Situational and Dispositional Variables in Helping Behavior," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27:1 (1973) 100-8.

[10] S. Milgram, Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View (New York, Harper and Row: 1974) 62-3, 170.

[11] E. Staub, "Helping a Distressed Person," L. Berkowitz, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (New York, Academic Press: 1974) 7: 293-341. None of the experiments and analyses lists religion as a factor in prosocial behavior.

[12] A. Colby and W. Damon, Some Do Care: Contemporary Lives of Moral Commitment (New York, Free Press: 1992). In this study of exemplars religion, again, is not a determinative factor.

[13] C. D. Batson and W. L. Ventis, The Religious Experience: A Social-Psychological Perspective (New York, Oxford University Press: 1982).

[14] S. and P. Oliner, The Altruistic Personality (New York, Free Press: 1988) -- reviewed by me in Critical Review of Books in Religion, 3 (1990) 409-11 -- 155-56, 290-92; P. Oliner, et al. Embracing the Other: Philosophical, Psychological, and Historical Perspectives (New York, New York University Press: 1992) -- reviewed by me in Pastoral Psychology 46:2 (1997) 131-34 -- ch. 11-13, especially ch. 14; E. Fogelman, Conscience and Courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust (New York, Anchor Books: 1994) -- reviewed by me in Journal of Psychology and Theology, 23 (1995) 62-63 -- 169-72.

[15] See, for example, M. Gilbert, The Holocaust (New York, Holt, Reinhart and Winston: 1992) at the Index.

[16] C. Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (New York, Harper Collins: 1992) ch. 2 and 18.

[17] See, for example, N. Tec, Defiance: The Bielski Paritsans (Oxford, Oxford University Press: 1993). Religion has also not been a factor in conscientious objection in the Israeli armed forces or in the various Israeli peace movements (though there is one small religious peace movement). See R. Linn, Conscience at War: The Israeli Soldier as a Moral Critic (New York, SUNY Press: 1996) -- reviewed by me in Jewish Spectator (Summer, 1998) 52-4.

[18] R. Rubenstein, The Cunning of History (San Francisco, Harper Colophon: 1975).

[19] This, in spite of the avowedly secular and atheistic ideology of these totalitarian-Enlightenment states. The "religious republics" of modern neo-fundamentalist bent do not augur much better treatment of prosocial issues.

[20] See Banality, chapters 2-5 and the Selected Bibliography, for the details.

[21] For more on this, see especially the Oliners, Toward. I have tried to arrange these recommendations in a sequence. But, it is possible that I am completely wrong about the sequence or that there is no sequence at all. In either case, the order can safely be ignored. The important thing is to get started facilitating good, no matter where one starts.

[22] A "value-concept" is a term which has both intellectual and moral dimensions. The intellectual dimension allows one to discuss and analyze the concept while the moral dimension allows one to understand the concept as normative, that is, as something one ought to do or as an attitude one ought to have. On this see Banality, chapter 7, and M. Kadushin, The Rabbinic Mind (New York, Jewish Theological Seminary: 1952).

[23] For more on this, see Banality, chapter 7.

[24] For more on this, see Banality, chapter 10.

[25] It is my fervent hope that Christian colleagues will develop this fully.

[26] See, for example, Colby and Damon. See also the Oliners, Toward, passim.

[27] The Giraffe Project (Box 759, Langley, WA 98260) keeps track of these, prepares press releases, and has prepared syllabi for all ages on "sticking out one's neck" for a prosocial cause.

[28] For more on this, see Banality, chapter 10-13.

[29] See the bibliography in Fogelman, cited above; the records of Yad Vashem, the Israeli shoah authority; G.Block, and M. Drucker, Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust, (New York, Holmes and Meier: 1992); etc. On Le Chambon, see P. Sauvage, Weapons of the Spirit (a film about Le Chambon sur Lignon). It is my fervent hope that Christian colleagues will develop these resources fully.

[30] See the Selected Bibliography in Banality. Consult the web.

[31] The centrality of this issue accounts for its appearance as an area of formal instruction and also as a social skill.

[32] See, for example: The National Coalition Building Institute, 1835 K Street, Washington, DC 20006.

[33] See "198 Methods of Nonviolent Action" prepared by The Albert Einstein Institution (1430 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138; phone: 617-876-0311) reprinted in the Appendix of Banality.

[34] See, for example: The Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Atlanta, GA, and the "List of Prosocial Resources" in the Appendix of Banality.

[35] See A. Kohn, Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A's, Praise, and other Bribes (New York, Houghton Mifflin: 1993).